A mouse monoclonal antibody, designated MRC OX-19, has been prepared that binds to virtually all rat thymocytes, T lymphocytes and a maximum of 2% B lymphocytes. Immunoperoxidase studies on tissue sections showed no reactivity with nonlymphoid cells in intestine, thymus, spleen and lymph node. The antigen recognized by MRC OX-19 antibody was identified by metabolic and cell surface labeling of thymocytes followed by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It is a surface glycoprotein of Mr = 69 000. When included in in vitro assays for T cell functions, MRC OX-19 increased proliferation stimulated by allogeneic spleen cells or the lectins phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. The antibody itself was not mitogenic and its stimulatory effect could be correlated with an increase in interleukin 2 production. Taken together the data suggest that MRC OX-19 could be the equivalent of mouse Ly-1 antigen and human T1 antigen.