In a cross-sectional study, serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) concentrations were measured in 981 men and 481 women, aged 11-89, yr. The resulting data were asymetrically distributed and were normalized by logarithmic transformation and analyzed by 5-yr age grouping (e.g. 15-19 yr, 20-24 yr, etc.). The DS concentration peaked at age 20-24 yr in men (logarithmic mean, 3470 ng/ml) and at age 15-19 yr in women (log mean, 2470 ng/ml). Mean values then declined steadily in both sexes (log mean at greater than 70 yr of age, 670 ng/ml in men and 450 ng/ml in women) and were significantly higher in men than women at ages from 20-69 yr. Analysis of 517 randomly selected sera (from women) which had been stored frozen for 10-15 yr gave results indistinguishable from values obtained from fresh specimens. In a supplementary study, a longitudinal analysis of weekly specimens from 4 normal men, aged 36-59 yr, revealed individual variability (mean coefficient of variation, 19%) and failed to demonstrate any monthly, seasonal, or annual rhythmicity. Based on the above analyses, a table of normal serum DS ranges for adult men and women is presented for use as a clinical reference.