Dichloromethylene diphosphonate can be used for temporary elimination of macrophages in the spleen when administered after entrapment in liposomes. No comparable effect on the macrophages of the spleen was observed with free dichloromethylene diphosphonate or in the case of empty liposomes. Marginal metallophils on the boundary between white pulp and marginal zone as well as macrophages in the marginal zone and red pulp disappeared from the spleen within one day and remained largely absent for about a week. After this time cells reappeared slowly, and at approximately four weeks after injection their presence in the spleen did not differ from that in control animals. Marginal metallophils and macrophages in the spleen were demonstrated by use of enzyme-histochemical methods and by their capacity to ingest carbon particles.