Slc:ddY mice that received a single intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) were examined for persistency of diabetes (changes of indigenous bacterial floras, and bacterial translocation. Significant diabetes (increase in plasma glucose and decrease in insulin) was recognized 2 weeks after the injection, and persisted for 12 weeks. The numbers of aerobic gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci (including micrococci), and streptococci in caecal and oral floras were significantly increased, but the numbers of anaerobic bacteria in caecal flora were hardly changed. Bacterial translocation of indigenous bacteria to the mesenteric lymph node, lung, or kidney was detectable in some mice 2 weeks after the injection. The incidence of bacterial translocation in these STZ-treated mice then increased; infection caused by several organisms, e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococci, or Lactobacillus sp., occurred in lung, liver, spleen, kidneys, and mesenteric lymph node. No indigenous bacteria were cultured from these organs of control mice. This endogenous infection may have been due to the over population of several bacterial strains caused by disruption of indigenous floras along with depression of immunological function.