In 1975 in Bulgaria a severe epidemic of central nervous system (CNS) disease occurred. Clinically, histopathologically, and epidemiologically the cases resembled poliomyelitis, aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and, in some cases, encephalomyocarditis. About 21% of the 700 reported cases developed paralysis, 44 with fatal outcome [ref. 1]. In 65 cases, 92 strains of enterovirus of the same serologic type were isolated: 38 strains from the CNS, 10 from mesenteric lymph nodes and tonsils, and 44 from feces [ref. 1,2]. A typical representative strain, No. 258, isolated from the spinal cord of a 3-month-old baby who died on the 5th day of disease with signs of focal polioencephalitis, was selected for intensive study. Cross-neutralization tests established the antigenic identity of the Bulgarian 258 strain (Stanchev) with American strains of enterovirus type 71 (BrCr and JaFr strains) and Swedish strains of the same type (Nos. 52343, 52500, and 6041). From its biological [ref. 1,2], physicochemical [ref. 3], and antigenic properties, the etiological agent of this large epidemic can be classified as a member of enterovirus type 71, one of the most highly pathogenic of the recently recognized enteroviruses.