Endotoxin from fresly sedimented Bordetella pertussis cells, isolated by the phenol/water procedure when submitted to kinetically controlled, mild acidic hydrolysis released a polysaccharide (polysaccharide 1), a complex lipid (lipid X), and a glycolipid. When treated with somewhat stronger acid, the glycolipid yielded a second polysaccharide (polysaccharide 2) and another complex lipid (lipid A). The intact pertussis endotoxin had all the usual properties of endotoxins extracted from enteric bacteria. Lipid X and the intermediary glycolipid retained all the endotoxic properties of the unfractionated endotoxin. In lipid A, pyrogenicity was reduced to a very low level and toxicity and Shwartzman reactivity were absent; however, this fraction retained most of the endotoxin's antiviral activity, and its adjuvant power was considerably higher than that of the intact endotoxin. Lipid A elicited nonspecific resistance against challenge with certain bacteria, but not against others.