In 18 cats anesthetized with chloralose, electrical activity of spontaneously active hypothalamic units was monitored for changes in firing frequency during electrical stimulation of carotid sinus (CSN) and aortic depressor (ADN) nerves and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Stimulation of the CSN altered the activity of 55% (381/691) of the tested. These responsive units were widely distributed in the ipsi- and contralateral hypothalamus. Of the units tested during stimulation of the ADN only 6% (17/274) changed their firing frequency. Responsive units were located only on the ipsilateral side and primarily in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, Electrical stimulation of the NTS altered the firing frequency of all 84 hypothalamic units previously identified by stimulation of the CSN. NTS stimulation elicited responses that had a significantly shorter latency and followed significantly higher frequencies of stimulation when compared to stimulation of the CSN. These results demonstrate that the two buffer nerves have distinctly different central projections to the hypothalamus and suggest different functional roles for the ADN and CSN in homeostatic regulatory mechanisms mediated by the hypothalamus.