Immunological function were studied in 22 patients with hydatidiform mole and 29 patients with malignant trophoblastic disease before and after treatment; normal pregnant and post-pregnant women served as controls. The only significant abnormality in hydatidiform mole was a low granulocyte chemotaxis before evacuation. In malignant trophoblastic disease the total lymphocyte counts, T-cell counts. B-cell counts, lymphocyte responses to mitogens and serum IgA levels were significantly lower than in normal women 6 wk after pregnancy. In those who responded to chemotherapy, these indices rose to the levels of post-pregnancy controls. An 'immune profile score' based on these indices was found to be a useful prognostic index. All patients with hydatidiform mole who had a score of 7 or less developed malignant trophoblastic disease, while the two patients with malignant trophoblastic disease who died had the lowest scores of the series.