PIP: A radioimmunoassay for estimating both unconjugated and conjugated ethinyl estradiol (EE) in serum is described, along with a report of levels of EE attained after its administration and the binding of EE in plasma, as determined by this radioimmunoassay. Mean values for concentration of free EE were 38-87 pg/ml, 1-4 hours after administration, and by 24 hours levels in most subjects were below the sensitivity level of this assay, which is less than 25 pg/ml. Conjugated EE concentration in serum was considerably higher, with mean values of 370-770 pg/ml 1-4 hours after ingestion, decreasing slowly to mean values of 285 pg/ml at 8 hours and 100 pg/ml at 24 hours postadministration. Total EE (conjugated plus unconjugated) had a mean half-life of 3.8 hours during the period 2-8 hours after administration and 10.7 hours for the period 8-24 hours postadministration. EE in plasma was shown, by equilibrium dialysis, gel filtration on Sephadex G200, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, to bind only to albumin, and no specific binding of EE occurred. The apparent association constant for the binding of EE to human serum albumin was 1.7 times 10 5 liter per mol.