Transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus infections occurred in 13.5% of 74 infants of seronegative mothers who were exposed to one or more blood donors who had a CMV indirect hemagglutination titer of 1:8 or higher. None of 90 infants of seronegative mothers exposed only to donors with CMV IHA titers of less than 1:8 became infected. Ten of 41 (24%) infants of seronegative mothers who received more than 50 ml of packed red blood cells and who were exposed to at least one seropositive donor became infected. None of 23 infants of seronegative mothers who received this amount of blood but who were exposed only to seronegative donors became infected. Fatal or serious symptoms developed in 50% of the infected infants of seronegative mothers and in none of the 32 infected infants of seropositive mothers. Acquired CMV infections occurred in 15% of infants of seropositive mothers who were exposed to the red blood cells of seropositive donors and in 17.6% of infants of seropositive mothers exposed only to seronegative donors. Use of seronegative donors reduced the prevalence of excretion of CMV among hospitalized infants who were 4 weeks of age or older from 12.5 to 1.8% and eliminated acquired CMV infections in infants of seronegative mothers.