Several species related to Drosophila melanogaster have two loci containing sequences which code for the major heat-shock protein of molecular weight 70,000 (hsp70). These sequences are arranged as two pairs of inverted repeats. The structure of the 87C locus in D. melanogaster seems to have arisen through DNA insertion. Hsp70-coding sequences at the two loci are not evolving independently. Gene conversion between hsp70 genes has apparently occurred both within and between loci.