Sixteen continuous tumor-cell cultures have been isolated from 91 tissue specimens from patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Biopsy and autopsy specimens of primary and metastatic tumors have been utilized. The developing cell lines were recognized by proliferation of tumor cells in the culture from one to 14 weeks after explanation and have been maintained for up to four years. Primary lung tumor, bone marrow aspirations, pleural effusions and other metastases have all been productive explant material for the development of cell lines. Their human origin has been demonstrated by chromosome and/or isoenzyme analysis. Dense core vesicles, characteristically found in small-cell tumor cells were observed by electron microscopic examination of cultured cells. Growth rates in vitro have been measured and the in vitro cycle time in tumors of one cell line (DMS 79) has been compared with in vivo cycle time in tumors arising from DMS 79 cells in nude athymic mice.