We examined effects of fiber on stool output, since this is one of the primary mediating variables for the hypothesized relationship between fiber and disease. Total neutral detergent fiber in the dietary fiber source was predictive of stool weight but not frequency. Substantial individual differences in stool output remained when dietary factors were controlled. Personality measures were used to predict stool weight and frequency independently of diet, and accounted for about as much variance in stool output as did dietary fiber. These results suggest that personality factors predispose some persons to low stool output. These individuals may benefit particularly from dietary fiber.