Purification and properties of adenylyl sulphate:ammonia adenylyltransferase from Chlorella catalysing the formation of adenosine 5' -phosphoramidate from adenosine 5' -phosphosulphate and ammonia

Biochem J. 1981 Jun 1;195(3):545-60. doi: 10.1042/bj1950545.


Extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris, spinach, barley, Dictyostelium discoideum and Escherichia coli form an unknown compound enzymically from adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate in the presence of ammonia. This unknown compound shares the following properties with adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate: molar proportions of constituent parts (1 adenine:1 ribose:1 phosphate:1 ammonia released at low pH), co-electrophoresis in all buffers tested including borate, formation of AMP at low pH through release of ammonia, mass and i.r. spectra and conversion into 5'-AMP by phosphodiesterase. This unknown compound therefore appears to be identical with adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate. The enzyme that catalyses the formation of adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate from ammonia and adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate was purified 1800-fold (to homogeneity) from Chlorella by using (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex and Reactive Blue 2-agarose chromatography. The purified enzyme shows one band of protein, coincident with activity, at a position corresponding to 60000-65000 molecular weight, on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and yields three subunits on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of 26000, 21000 and 17000 molecular weight, consistent with a molecular weight of 64000 for the native enzyme. Isoelectrofocusing yields one band of pI4.2. The pH optimum of the enzyme-catalysed reaction is 8.8. ATP, ADP or adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate will not replace adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate, and the apparent K(m) for the last-mentioned compound is 0.82mm. The apparent K(m) for ammonia (assuming NH(3) to be the active species) is about 10mm. A large variety of primary, secondary and tertiary amines or amides will not replace ammonia. One mol.prop. of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reacts with 1 mol.prop. of ammonia to yield 1 mol.prop. each of adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate and sulphate; no AMP is found. The highly purified enzyme does not catalyse any of the known reactions of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate, including those catalysed by ATP sulphurylase, adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate kinase, adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate sulphotransferase or ADP sulphurylase. Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate is found in old samples of the ammonium salt of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate and can be formed non-enzymically if adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate and ammonia are boiled. In the non-enzymic reaction both adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate and AMP are formed. Thus the enzyme forms adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate by selectively speeding up an already favoured reaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Monophosphate / analogs & derivatives
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / biosynthesis
  • Adenosine Phosphosulfate / metabolism
  • Ammonia / metabolism
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry
  • Chlorella / enzymology*
  • Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose
  • Chromatography, Gel
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Kinetics
  • Nucleotidyltransferases* / isolation & purification
  • Nucleotidyltransferases* / metabolism


  • Adenosine Monophosphate
  • Adenosine Phosphosulfate
  • adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate
  • Ammonia
  • Nucleotidyltransferases
  • adenylyl sulfate-ammonia adenylyltransferase