Myxothiazol inhibited oxygen consumption of beef heart mitochondria in the presence and absence of 2,4-dinitrophenol, as well as NADH oxidation by submitochondrial particles. The doses required for 50% inhibition were 0.58 mol myxothiazol/mol cytochrome b for oxygen consumption of beef heart mitochondria, and 0.45 mol/mol cytochrome b for NADH oxidation by submitochondrial particles. Difference spectra with beef heart mitochondria and with cell suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that myxothiazol blocked the electron transport within the cytochrome b-c1 segment of the respiratory chain. Myxothiazol induced a spectral change in cytochrome b which was different from and independent of the shift induced by antimycin. Myxothiazol did not give the extra reduction of cytochrome b typical for antimycin. Studies on the effect of mixtures of myxothiazol and antimycin on the inhibition of NADH oxidation indicated that the binding sites of the two inhibitors are not identical.