This paper describes an epidemiological study of the patterns and correlates of survival after early (age 62 to 64) and normal retirement (age 65) among 3,971 U.S. rubber tire workers. For the two companies, death rates were significantly elevated during the first, fourth, and fifth years after early retirement. Among normal retirees, elevations in death rates occurred during the third or fourth years after retirement in Company B and Company A, respectively. When the experiences of both companies were combined, no significant mortality excesses were observed. Comparisons of deaths (cases) within 5 years of retirement with survivors (controls) showed that pre-retirement health status was the only significant predictor of survival after early retirement. Among normal retirees, lower status workers were more likely to die within 3 years of retirement than higher status workers, who were more prominent among deaths 4 to 5 years after retirement. Risks of dying were greater among normal retirees with a history of repeated medical and nonmedical absences.