Plasma membranes from rat striatum contain adenylate cyclase activity that is subject to dual regulation by GTP. Low concentrations (up to 30 nM) of the nucleotide increase activity whereas higher concentrations evoke a steady decline in activity; such behavior characterizes dually regulated adenylate cyclase systems. The opiates, morphine sulfate and D-Ala-Met-enkephalin, produce naloxone-reversible inhibition of the enzyme that is dependent on "inhibitory concentrations" of GTP (above 50 nM). In the absence of GTP no inhibition is observed. Sodium ions decrease the inhibition of activity promoted by GTP alone, but amplify the degree of inhibition seen in the presence of the opiates and GTP. The potencies of the opiates in mediating these effects mirror their affinities for delta opiate receptors in striatum. It is suggested that this action of the opiates may represent their primary action in striatum.