The Clarke and Carbon bank of Col El - Escherichia coli DNa hybrid plasmids was screened for complementation of d-xylose negative mutants of E. coli. Of several obtained, the smallest, pRM10, was chosen for detailed study. Its size was 16 kilobases (kb) and that of the insert was 9.7 kg. By transformation or F'-mediated conjugation this plasmid complemented mutants of E. coli defective in either D-xylose isomerase or D-xylulose kinase activity, or both. The activity of D-xylulose kinase in E. coli transformants which bear an intact chromosomal gene for this enzyme was greater than that for the host, due to a gene dosage effect. The plasmid also complemented D-xylose negative mutants of Salmonella typhimurium by F'-mediated conjugation between E. coli and S. typhimurium. Salmonella typhimurium mutants complemented were those for D-xylose isomerase and for D-xylulose kinase in addition to pleiotropic D-xylose mutants which were defective in a regulatory gene of the D-xylose operon. In addition, the plasmid complemented the glyS mutation in E. coli and S. typhimurium. The glyS mutant of E. coli was temperature sensitive, indicating that the plasmid carried the structural gene for glycine synthetase. The glyS mutation in E. coli maps at 79 min, as do the xyl genes. The behaviour of the plasmid is consistent with the existence of a d-xylose operon in E. coli. The data also suggest that the plasmid carries three of the genes of this operon, specifically those for D-xylose isomerase, D-xylulose kinase, and a regulatory gene.