A randomized trial was initiated to compare the effects of PIVN-associated chemotherapy (adriamycin, vincristine, VP16-213 and cyclophosphamide) versus as chemotherapy control group in patients with small-cell lung neoplasias. The results obtained are preliminary. The test group included ten patients whereas nine were followed in the control group. PIVN was scheduled each day the patient underwent chemotherapy. Each patient received 1550 kcal/day, which included 10% glucose, 20% lipids, and amino acids which may or may not be mixed in the same infusion bottle. The results show three PIVN patients presently in complete remission at the end of three courses of treatment compared to two over the same time period in the chemotherapy control group. Of all patients who can be evaluated at this time, five out of six PIVN patients are in complete remission compared to four out of five in the control group. There was no significant difference in either general health or side effects, such as nausea and vomiting. The median length of time for which a low white cell or platelet count was noted was the same for both groups.