A serum fraction from schizophrenic patients has been investigated for its effect on opiate receptor sites and on behaviour in rats. Serum from schizophrenic patients was ultrafiltered and fractionated on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The concentration of peptide material eluting under 0.1 M HCl (fraction I) was further purified on Sephadex-G10 and four major peaks were identified (fractions II to V). When injected intracerebroventricularly in rats, fraction II produced a characteristic behavioural syndrome, which included hyperactivity associated with hyperemotionality. The effects were long lasting, bouts of hyperemotionality accompanied by analgesia were recorded over a two-week period. The same fraction from control non-patients produced a transient and much reduced, but qualitatively similar response. There was evidence that fraction III was also active. An in vitro opiate receptor binding test showed that fraction II from schizophrenic patients inhibited [3H]naloxone binding.