Antibodies prepared against chemically synthesized peptides predicted from the DNA sequence have been used to detect human mitochondrial gene products. In particular, antibodies directed against either the NH2-terminal decapeptide or the COOH-terminal undecapeptide of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) were both very effective in immunoprecipitating the previously identified COII polypeptide from an SDS lysate of mitochondria from HeLa cells. Similarly, antibodies directed against the COOH-terminal nonapeptide of the putative polypeptide encoded in the unidentified reading frame A6L, which overlaps the ATPase 6 gene, immunoprecipitated specifically a component (#25) of the HeLa cell mitochondrial translation products; antibodies directed against the NH2-terminal octapeptide also precipitated protein 25, although less efficiently. The size of protein 25, as estimated from its electrophoretic mobility, is compatible with its being the unidentified reading frame A6L product. Furthermore, a fingerprinting analysis of this protein after trypsin digestion has given results consistent with this identification.