A system is described for the stable insertion of cloned DNA sequences into the chromosomes of Gram-negative bacteria. Two broad-host-range plasmids form the basis of the system: one (the "carrier") contains a transposable DNA sequence into which foreign DNA can be cloned; the second (the "helper") provides transposition functions in trans. Both plasmids can be readily transferred between Gram-negative bacteria by conjugation. Instability of the carrier allows enrichment for the products of transposition to the chromosome of the new host, following which the insertion can be stabilised by elimination of the helper. The system was successfully tested in Escherichia coli, Methylophilus methylotrophus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the insertions were stable in each case (less than 0.02% loss per generation).