The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake, and eating time of obese and nonobese subjects

Am J Clin Nutr. 1983 May;37(5):763-7. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/37.5.763.


The concept of time-energy displacement is based on the hypothesis that unrefined complex carbohydrates of low energy density will prolong eating time and induce satiety at a low energy intake. The present study compared the effects of diets low in energy density and high in energy density on satiety, energy intake, and eating time among 20 obese and nonobese subjects. Each diet was served over a 5-day period, and subjects were allowed to eat to satiety. With equal acceptance ratings of the diets, satiety was reached on the diet low in energy density at a mean daily energy intake one-half that of the diet high in energy density (1570 versus 3000 kcal). Eating time was significantly longer on the diet low in energy density by an average of 33%/day. Obese and nonobese subjects were comparable in their satiety ratings, energy consumption, eating time, and food acceptance. These data support the concept of time-energy displacement, which should therefore have applicability to the treatment and prevention of obesity.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Weight
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Fiber / metabolism
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Satiation / physiology
  • Time Factors