Two UTP-utilizing uridylyltransferases which react with both glucose 1-phosphate and galactose 1-phosphate were isolated from cell-free extracts of Entamoeba histolytica. The more specific of these enzymes, glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, acts preferentially on glucose 1-phosphate, having a maximum velocity 20-fold greater with this substrate than with galactose 1-phosphate. It was purified 200 fold with a 25% yield and has a molecular weight of 45 000. This enzyme requires a reducing agent for stability. The less specific transferase reacts with both hexose phosphates, having a maximum velocity of 1.35 times greater with galactose 1-phosphate. It was purified 1000 fold with a 20% yield, and has a molecular weight of 40 000. The common Leloir enzyme, UDP glucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylytransferase (EC 188.8.131.52), was not found in this organism. To avoid confusion with the Leloir enzyme our experience suggests that the less specific enzyme, which is presently referred to in the literature as galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (EC 184.108.40.206), should be named UTP:hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.?). The more specific enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11) should be more clearly named UTP:glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.