The role of steroids in promoting cell proliferation is well established but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. The S115 mouse mammary tumour cell line provides a model system for molecular studies in vitro in that it exhibits in tissue culture both a positive proliferative response to androgens and a change from a transformed phenotype in the presence of androgen to a normal phenotype when androgen is removed. We have considered here the possible involvement of mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) in these processes. We have demonstrated the presence in S115 cells of MMTV-related sequences which are transcribed into RNA only in the long-term presence of androgen. Prolonged culture in the absence of androgen, which results in loss of proliferative response to androgen, is accompanied by loss of MMTV-related RNA and increased methylation of MMTV-related sequences.