Protection by clinoptilolite or zeolite NaA against cadmium-induced anemia in growing swine

Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1983 Jul;173(3):332-7. doi: 10.3181/00379727-173-41652.


Weanling Landrace X Yorkshire swine were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 3% clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) with or without 150 ppm CdCl2 or 3% zeolite NaA (a synthetic zeolite) with or without 150 ppm CdCl2 for 31 days. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were depressed significantly in animals fed Cd in the absence of zeolites, but not in their presence. Liver Cd concentration was increased dramatically by added dietary Cd but was significantly lower in animals fed clinoptilolite with Cd than in those fed Cd alone (11.4 vs 16.5 ppm). Liver Fe and Zn were decreased by dietary Cd; liver Fe was not affected significantly by clinoptilolite or zeolite NaA, but liver Zn was increased by zeolite NaA. Kidney dry matter, Zn, and Cd concentrations were increased by dietary Cd; neither clinoptilolite nor zeolite NaA affected kidney Cd concentration. Zeolite NaA increased kidney dry matter both in the presence and in the absence of dietary Cd. Plasma urea-N, K, Na, and Mg were unaffected by Cd or by either zeolite. The data illustrate the different effects of dietary clinoptilolite compared with zeolite NaA on blood plasma, liver, and kidney concentrations of minerals and provide evidence that both zeolites offer some protection against Cd-induced Fe-deficiency anemia; the magnitude of this protection and the effects of each zeolite on tissue concentrations of Cd and other materials need further quantification.

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum Silicates / pharmacology*
  • Anemia, Hypochromic / chemically induced*
  • Animals
  • Cadmium Chloride
  • Cadmium* / metabolism
  • Cadmium* / pharmacology
  • Iron / metabolism
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Swine
  • Zeolites
  • Zinc / metabolism


  • Aluminum Silicates
  • Cadmium
  • Zeolites
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Cadmium Chloride