Tumorigenic conversion of primary embryo fibroblasts requires at least two cooperating oncogenes

Nature. 1983 Aug;304(5927):596-602. doi: 10.1038/304596a0.


Transfection of embryo fibroblasts by a human ras oncogene does not convert them into tumour cells unless the fibroblasts are established and immortalized before transfection. The embryo fibroblasts become tumorigenic if a second oncogene such as a viral or cellular myc gene or the gene for the polyoma large-T antigen is introduced together with the ras gene.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / genetics
  • Antigens, Viral, Tumor
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Transformation, Viral*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genes, Viral
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Mice
  • Oncogenes*
  • Phenotype
  • Polyomavirus / genetics


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Antigens, Viral, Tumor