Nucleotide sequences of the homologous tetracycline resistance (tet) determinants of plasmid RP1 and transposon Tn1721 have been determined. Two open reading frames of divergent polarity have been assigned to a regulatory gene (tetR) and a gene encoding a resistance protein (tetA). The intercistronic region contains appropriate regulatory and transcription signals. The tetR gene can code for a protein of 216 amino acids (deduced mol.wt. 23,288) and the tetA gene for a protein of 399 amino acids (deduced mol. wt. 42,205). Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the tetA proteins of RP1/Tn1721 are 78% homologous with that of pBR322 and 45% homologous with that of Tn10. We conclude that a single tetA gene mediates resistance in each of these tet determinants.