Factors affecting starch digestibility and the glycemic response with special reference to legumes

Am J Clin Nutr. 1983 Sep;38(3):481-8. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/38.3.481.

Abstract

Large differences exist in the degree to which different starch containing foods affect the blood glucose levels of both normal volunteers and diabetics. These differences appear to relate to the digestibility of the starch and the factors determining this, including: the interaction of starch with fiber, antinutrients (eg, phytate) and protein in the food, together with the nature of the starch itself and its physical form (eg, raw or cooked, ground or whole). In this respect legumes exemplify a class of foods, high in fiber, protein and antinutrients, with a starch which is digested slowly in vitro. They also produce relatively small blood glucose rises after consumption by both normals and diabetics and in the longterm result in improved diabetic control. Identification of more such foods and further understanding of factors determining starch digestibility will allow greater therapeutic use of diet in the management of diabetics and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Cooking
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism*
  • Dietary Fiber / pharmacology
  • Dietary Proteins / metabolism
  • Digestion
  • Fabaceae*
  • Humans
  • Particle Size
  • Plants, Medicinal*
  • Starch / metabolism*
  • Starch / pharmacology

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Starch