A new IS element (IS200) has been identified in Salmonella. The sequence was identified as an IS element by the following criteria: its insertion caused the mutation hisD984; six copies of the sequence are present in strain LT2 of S. typhimurium; and transposition of the sequence has been observed on several occasions. IS200 is found in almost all Salmonella species examined but is absent from most other enteric bacteria. The specificity of this element for Salmonella (and the absence of IS1-IS4 from Salmonella) suggest that transfer of insertion sequences between bacterial groups may be less extensive than is commonly believed. Alternatively, the distribution may suggest that these elements play a selectively important role in bacteria.