A slight DNA topoisomerase I activity was detected in highly purified poly(ADP-Rib)polymerase prepared from calf thymus. This copurified activity was found to be suppressed under conditions where the poly(ADP-ribosylation) reaction occurs in the presence of NAD. Purified topoisomerase I from calf thymus was shown to be ADP-ribosylated by poly(ADP-Rib) polymerase purified from the same tissue. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) of topoisomerase I produces an inhibition of the enzymatic activity in parallel to the extent of ADP-ribosylation. The fact that a slight poly(ADP-Rib) polymerase activity was also found to copurify with a topoisomerase I preparation and that topoisomerase I activity can be modified by ADP-ribosylation, may suggest a spatial and functional correlation of these two enzymes in chromatin.