We have cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced a 1489-bp DNA fragment conferring resistance to kanamycin and originating from the streptococcal plasmid pJH1. The resistance gene was located by analysis of the initiation and termination codons in an open reading frame (ORF) of 792 bp. The deduced gene product, a 3'5''-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase of type III, has an Mr of 29,200. Comparison of its amino acid sequence with those of type I (Oka et al., 1981) and type II (Beck et al., 1982) 3' phosphotransferase, from transposable elements Tn903 and Tn5, respectively, indicated a statistically significant structural relationship between these enzymes from phylogenetically remote bacterial genera. The degree of homology observed indicate that phosphotransferase type III and type I genes have diverged from a common ancestor and that the phosphotransferase type II gene has emerged more recently from the type I evolutionary pathway.