From 1973 to 1981, 75 patients with T1 N1 M0 and T2 N1 M0 disease had a complete, potentially curative resection with mediastinal lymph node dissection. Thirty-eight had adenocarcinomas, 36 epidermoid cancer and one large cell carcinoma. Surgical treatment consisted of lobectomy in 54, sleeve lobectomy in three, and pneumonectomy in 18. Two patients died postoperatively. Of 17 patients with T1 N1 disease, 14 had no further treatment and three received postoperative radiation and/or chemotherapy; the 5 year cumulative survival rate of these patients was 56%. There were 58 patients with T2 N1 disease. Forty-five had no further treatment and 13 received postoperative radiation and/or chemotherapy; the 5 year cumulative survival rate of these patients was 48%. The overall incidence of local and regional recurrence was low, and the brain was the most frequent site of recurrence. Factors influencing recurrence were histology and proximity of the tumor to hilum. The specific nodes involved, the number of nodes affected, and the extent of involvement within the nodes had no observed effect on survival. There was no observed improvement in survival with the use of adjuvants. However, survival was significantly poorer in patients with visceral pleural involvement.