A sero-epidemiological survey for certain arboviruses (Togaviridae) in Pakistan

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77(4):442-5. doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(83)90106-2.


Complement-fixation test reactions to eight viruses of the family Togaviridae were studied in 372 serum samples (157 rodents, 172 domestic animals, 43 humans) from Pakistan. Antibodies to each tested virus were detected. The highest over-all prevalence rates were for West Nile (WN) (7.8%), Japanese encephalitis (JE) (3.2%) and Zika (ZIKA) (2.4%) viruses, followed by Sindbis (SIN), Chikungunya (CHIK), Uganda S (UGS) and Royal Farm (RF) viruses (1.6 to 1.3%). One human serum (male, age 58 years) reacted with Dengue-1 (DEN) virus antigen (titre 1:32). Antibodies to each virus except RF were detected in human sera; antibodies to RF virus were detected only in rodent and domestic animal sera. The roles of rodents in the epidemiology of WN, JE and ZIKA viruses should be investigated. At least six of these eight viruses cause fevers in humans (fevers of unknown origin comprise about one third of the febrile episodes recorded in Pakistan).

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alphavirus / immunology
  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic / microbiology*
  • Antibodies, Viral / analysis
  • Complement Fixation Tests
  • Flavivirus / immunology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Pakistan
  • Rats
  • Rodent Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Rodentia
  • Togaviridae / immunology
  • Togaviridae Infections / epidemiology*
  • Togaviridae Infections / veterinary


  • Antibodies, Viral