Two isolates of Candida albicans from chronic mucocutaneous candidosis patients who initially responded to ketoconazole treatment but who later relapsed, have shown an abnormal response to ketoconazole in four out of five systems in vitro and in three animal models of vaginal or systemic infection. They have also shown abnormal resistance to inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis in whole cells, but not in cell-free systems, and to inhibition of amino acid uptake. We conclude that the behaviour of the isolates is consistent with the development of drug resistance to ketoconazole. In all systems the two isolates have shown cross-resistance to the triazole antifungal ICI 153,066. In addition they fail to take up radiolabelled ICI 153,066--in contrast to normal isolates--indicating that resistance is due to changes in the properties of the cell membrane rather than internal enzymology.