Attempts to inhibit the recognition of soluble antigens by T lymphocytes using antibodies specific for the antigen in question have been uniformally unsuccessful, in contrast to the observed specific inhibition of antibody generation by B cells. One exception is the unique situation whereby anti-hapten antisera inhibit the T-cell proliferative responses observed when hapten-specific T lymphocytes or clones are cultured with hapten-derivatized cells or proteins. The inability to inhibit T-cell functions by antigen-specific antibodies has been interpreted in several ways: (1) T cells possess a different repertoire from B cells; (2) the antibodies tested recognize epitopes present on the native antigen, whereas T cells recognize non-native (processed) structures; (3) the antigenic determinant(s) recognized by T cells on the surface of antigen presenting cells are either not accessible to antibodies, or are present in low amounts. The development of antigen-specific T-cell clones and monoclonal antibodies both specific for the same antigenic determinants now allows this question to be investigated definitively. Here, we report for the first time the specific inhibition of antigen-induced T-cell clone proliferation by a monoclonal antibody directed against the relevant soluble protein antigen.