Six patients had a syndrome of painful lumbosacral plexopathy and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Sural nerve biopsy in each case showed axonal degeneration and epineurial arterioles surrounded by mononuclear inflammatory cells. Differential fascicular involvement suggested an ischemic cause in three nerves, but no patient had a necrotizing vasculitis. None of the six patients had vasculitis or cancer. Three of the six were diabetic and were initially thought to have diabetic plexopathy, but deterioration continued despite control of the diabetes. These six patients appeared to have an ischemic neuropathy with an immunological basis. Five were treated with immunosuppressant drugs, and in four the plexopathy improved or was arrested. The pathogenesis is unclear, but postmortem findings in one case suggest that the syndrome does not stem from an underlying vasculitis.