Pharmacological studies on ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent constitutents, (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol

J Pharmacobiodyn. 1984 Nov;7(11):836-48. doi: 10.1248/bpb1978.7.836.


General pharmacological studies were performed on (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol which are the pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Intravenous (i.v.) administration of (6)-gingerol (at 1.75-3.5 mg/kg) or (6)-shogaol (at 1.75-3.5 mg/kg) and oral administration of them (at 70-140 mg/kg) produced an inhibition of spontaneous motor activity, an antipyretic and analgesic effects, prolonged hexobarbital-induced sleeping time, and these effects of (6)-shogaol were mostly more intensive than that of (6)-gingerol. (6)-Shogaol showed an intense antitussive effect in comparison with dihydrocodeine phosphate. In the electro-encephalogram of cortex, the low amplitude fast wave pattern was observed for 5 min after i.v. administration of (6)-shogaol, and then changed to the drowsy pattern, which was restored after 60 min. In the gastro-intestinal system, (6)-shogaol intensively inhibited the traverse of charcoal meal through the intestine in contrast with (6)-gingerol after i.v. administration of 3.5 mg/kg, but (6)-shogaol facilitated such an intestinal function after oral administration of 35 mg/kg. Both (6)-shogaol and (6)-gingerol suppressed gastric contraction in situ, and the suppression by the former was more intensive than that by the latter. In the cardiovascular system, both (6)-shogaol and (6)-gingerol produced depressor response at lower doses on the blood pressure. At high doses, both drugs produced three phase pattern.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Catechols / pharmacology*
  • Catechols / toxicity
  • Condiments / analysis*
  • Drug Interactions
  • Electroencephalography
  • Fatty Alcohols / pharmacology*
  • Fatty Alcohols / toxicity
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Motility / drug effects
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects
  • Hexobarbital / pharmacology
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Intestinal Absorption / drug effects
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Muscle Tonus / drug effects
  • Plants, Medicinal / analysis*
  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Sleep / drug effects


  • Analgesics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Catechols
  • Fatty Alcohols
  • shogaol
  • gingerol
  • Hexobarbital