Immunonephelometric and immunoturbidimetric assays for proteins

Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1983;18(3):213-60. doi: 10.3109/10408368209085072.


Immunonephelometric and immunoturbidimetric techniques for the measurement of proteins have developed and expanded rapidly in recent years and are fast replacing the time-honoured gel precipitation techniques. The reasons for this are primarily an increased awareness of the value of specific protein measurements with the impetus of improved chemical reagents and advances in instrument technology. This review discusses the background to such free fluid phase immunochemical measurement systems and the developments which have occurred in this field. The following topics are reviewed. (1) The theoretical background of light scattering theory as applied to the measurement of antibody-antigen complexes. (2) The nature and kinetics of the antibody-antigen reaction in fluid media and the effect of enhancing polymers. (3) The sample and antibody requirements for nephelometric and turbidimetric assay. (4) Instrumental systems for nephelometry. (5) Instrumental systems for turbidimetry. (6) Methods of establishing, assessing and monitoring nephelometric assays for specific proteins in the laboratory.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigen-Antibody Complex / analysis
  • Antigen-Antibody Reactions
  • Antigens / analysis
  • Blood Proteins / analysis
  • Body Fluids / analysis
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins / immunology*
  • Kinetics
  • Lasers
  • Light
  • Nephelometry and Turbidimetry / instrumentation
  • Nephelometry and Turbidimetry / methods*
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Proteins / analysis*
  • Scattering, Radiation


  • Antigen-Antibody Complex
  • Antigens
  • Blood Proteins
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Proteins
  • Polyethylene Glycols