Current topics on the normal anatomy and functional organization of the human prostate are presented and related to endocrine principles studied experimentally in dogs and rats. While detailed internal organization and gross anatomical structure of the human gland are still debated by some, there is considerable unanimity on the functional interdependence and relationship between the stroma and the epithelium, as has been concluded from experimental, embryological, and pathological observations. This review also focuses on prostatic secretion, its normal postnatal development, and its functional and possible regulatory significance. Secretion is closely related to both hormonal and neurovascular regulatory mechanisms, and any changes in their balance evoke characteristic, and in some instances species-specific, morphological and functional reactions in the prostate. An hypothesis is presented on the interdependence of secretion and cell proliferation in the prostate.