Based on G- and C-banded karyotypes of 10 specimens of rice rats, genus Oryzomys (a member of the macconnelli-capito complex but species identification is not possible at this time) from a single isolated population, we found at least nine different centric fusion/fission polymorphisms. No two individuals examined had the same karyotype. Polymorphic variation appears to be stable in the population and not the result of hybridization, human disturbance, or non-specific mutagenic agents. Among the 14 largest chromosomes, polymorphism is restricted to fusion/fission rearrangements. Among the smaller ones, there is polymorphism in the total number of euchromatic arms, which indicates that rearrangements other than fusion/fission exist within our sample. Data from these rice rats document the presence of a greater number of chromosomal polymorphisms within a single, natural population than have previously been reported in a higher vertebrate.