Protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 is a new brain-specific protein originally detected by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of the soluble proteins of human brain and other organs. We have purified this protein from human brain and raised a rabbit antihuman PGP 9.5 antiserum. The protein has a monomer molecular weight of approximately 27,000 and is present in brain at concentrations at least 50 times greater than in other organs. Immunoperoxidase labelling has localised PGP 9.5 to neurones in the human cerebral cortex with no evidence of staining of glial elements. PGP 9.5 is estimated to be present in brain at concentrations of 200-500 micrograms/g wet weight and represents a major protein component of neuronal cytoplasm. This new neurone-specific cytoplasmic marker may prove useful in studies of neuronal development and in the detection of neuronal damage in disease of the nervous system.