Fusobacterium necrophorum is considered to be a member of the normal rumen flora and is the primary etiologic agent of bovine liver abscesses. Of the three biotypes of F. necrophorum, A, B, and C, only biotypes A and B have been implicated in the disease. Type B is the predominant biotype isolated from ruminal lesions and type A is the predominate biotype isolated from liver abscesses. Type A is usually found in pure culture in the liver abscesses; whereas, type B is usually found in mixed culture with either type A or with other bacterial species. Corynebacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Bacteroides spp. are the most prevalent bacteria recovered from mixed cultures. Corynebacterium pyogenes is the most common species isolated and can cause disease synergistically with type B isolates.