Prandial insulin requirements in insulin-dependent diabetics: effects of size, time of day, and sequence of meals

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Nov;57(5):931-6. doi: 10.1210/jcem-57-5-931.


To assess the effects of size, time of day, and sequence of meals on insulin requirements determined by an artificial endocrine pancreas, eight insulin-dependent diabetics ate meals of 12.5%, 25%, and 50% of total calories (30 Kcal/kg) at 0800, 1300, and 1800 on each of 3 separate days in a randomized order in one of two sequences in a three by three Latin square design. Plasma glucose and free insulin concentrations and amounts of insulin infused by the artificial endocrine pancreas were associated with meal size (P less than 0.001) but not with time of day of meal ingestion (analysis of variance). The sequence of meal ingestion did not alter integrated plasma glucose responses, but did influence the meal-related amounts of insulin infused. Thus, consideration should be given to meal size and sequence of meal ingestion but not time of day of meal ingestion when determining prandial iv insulin requirements.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diet*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Glucagon / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Time Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon