A 46-component neurological exam was administered to 119 learning-disabled children and to 152 control children, and a Neuroimmaturity Index (NI) was constructed. The results were compared by age and sex. Neuroimmaturity decreased significantly with age, and after controlling for age and sex there were statistically significant differences in NI between the learning-disabled and control children. Male children from both groups, controlling for age, tended to have a higher NI than females. Patterns of disability were related to communication skills; older learning-disabled males had difficulty writing and spelling, whereas younger female learning-disabled children had difficulty with spoken language.