Clinical organ transplantation between genetically disparate individuals currently requires the use of chemotherapeutic agents to suppress the rejection reaction. The deleterious side effects of these reagents and their inability to prevent rejection completely has led to a continuing search for methods to induce specific transplantation tolerance in adult recipients. Numerous experimental animal models utilizing irradiation and bone marrow transplantation coincident with organ transplantation have been proposed. Bone marrow transplantation, however, has its own major complications, including graft-versus-host reactions and immunoincompetence, probably resulting from a failure of appropriate immune cell interactions in the reconstituted host. We have now attempted to overcome these difficulties by reconstituting the irradiated host with T-cell depleted bone marrow containing both host (syngeneic) and donor (allogeneic or xenogeneic) components. This technique leads to long-term survival of the reconstituted animals and specific prolongation of subsequent skin grafts of donor type. Animals reconstituted in this fashion are fully reactive to third-party allografts and xenografts and do not appear to manifest signs of graft-versus-host disease.