The author presents data on the first women obstetricians and gynecologists in the Yugoslav countries. Their work started in Belgrade in the last decade of the 19th century (Dr Eva Haljecka in 1892 and Dr Ljubica Godevac-Durić in 1896). The life, work, and other biographical data concerning Dr E. Haljecka (1869-1947) are given in more detail. She was the first woman obstetrician-gynecologist not only in Belgrade, Nis and the whole of Serbia but also in all Yugoslav countries. In 1920 she became the first head of the Gynecologico-Obstetric Department of the Nis Hospital, where she had worked since 1910. Before the First World War Dr E. Haljecka distinguished herself as a prominent fighter for the social and other rights and equality of women physicians in the then Kingdom of Serbia.