Peripheral nerve disorders are important late complications of diabetes mellitus. Polyneuropathy, which may involve varying proportions of sensory, motor, and autonomic fibers, is considered the consequence of metabolic derangements that result from chronic hyperglycemia. Symmetrical proximal motor neuropathy ("diabetic amyotrophy") also may have a metabolic basis. Mononeuropathies in diabetes may have an ischemic or compressive cause. Advances have been made in understanding the biochemical basis for diabetic polyneuropathy. The treatment of symptomatic diabetic neuropathy should be directed toward long-term normalization of blood glucose until more specific therapies become available.