Active-site mapping of bovine and human blood coagulation serine proteases using synthetic peptide 4-nitroanilide and thio ester substrates

Biochemistry. 1984 Feb 14;23(4):644-50. doi: 10.1021/bi00299a009.


A series of 14 tripeptide 4-nitroanilide substrates of the type Z-AA-Gly-Arg-NA and Z-AA-Phe-Arg-NA where AA = Ala, Asn, Glu, Lys, Phe, Pro, or Ser were used to map the S3 subsite of several serine proteases involved in blood coagulation. The enzymes studied included bovine thrombin, factor IXa, factor Xa, factor XIa, human beta-factor XIIa (factor XIIa fragment), and activated bovine and human protein C. Kinetic constants (kcat, KM, and kcat/KM) for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrates by each enzyme were determined and used to compare the relative reactivities of the individual enzymes. Most of the enzymes reacted with all the substrates, although a few showed considerable specificity. Human beta-factor XIIa showed the highest reactivity of all the coagulation proteases studied and was also very substrate specific (kcat/KM ranged over 470-fold). The best substrate was Z-Lys-Phe-Arg-NA with kcat/KM = 140 000 M-1 s-1. Activated bovine protein C (best substrate = Z-Ser-Phe-Arg-NA), factor Xa (best substrate = Z-Glu-Gly-Arg-NA), and thrombin (best substrate = Z-Lys-Gly-Arg-NA) were the group of enzymes that showed next highest reactivity toward the substrates. Activated bovine protein C, thrombin, and factor Xa displayed relatively little substrate specificity. Activated human protein C (best substrate = Z-Ser-Phe-Arg-NA) and factor XIa (best substrate = Z-Glu-Gly-Arg-NA) are moderately reactive enzymes. Activated human protein C is an extremely specific enzyme since it has such a large range of kcat/KM values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Blood Coagulation*
  • Cattle
  • Endopeptidases / blood*
  • Factor IX / metabolism
  • Factor IXa
  • Factor X / metabolism
  • Factor XI / metabolism
  • Factor XII / metabolism
  • Factor XIIa
  • Factor XIa
  • Factor Xa
  • Glycoproteins / blood
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Kinetics
  • Oligopeptides
  • Peptide Fragments / metabolism
  • Protein C
  • Serine Endopeptidases
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Thrombin / metabolism


  • Glycoproteins
  • Oligopeptides
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Protein C
  • Factor IX
  • Factor X
  • Factor XII
  • Factor XI
  • Endopeptidases
  • Serine Endopeptidases
  • Factor IXa
  • Factor XIa
  • Factor XIIa
  • Thrombin
  • Factor Xa