Cine tantalum bronchograms were recorded from 7 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs during spontaneous ventilation (SV), high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) at 3 frequencies, and intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) at 3 combinations of tidal volume (VT) and rate. During SV and the 3 IPPV conditions, the percent inspiratory increase in the diameter of airways greater than 3 mm was the same as in airways less than 3 mm. With HFJV, the percent increase in the diameter of airways greater than 3 mm was twice that of smaller airways. Increases in airway diameter are proportional to transmural, and hence intraluminal airway pressure. These data, therefore, indicate that the contribution of intraluminal pressure changes to intrapulmonary gas transport in small airways during HFJV is less than with either SV or IPPV, and that mechanisms responsible for intrapulmonary gas transport in small conducting airways during HFJV are different than those associated with either SV or IPPV.